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Black Spots on Tongue: Causes, Remedies, and Prevention

Mar 13, 2024

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Experiencing black spots on your tongue can lead to concern and curiosity. These spots, varying in size and intensity, are often harmless but may indicate underlying health conditions. Our article delves into the natural causes, common conditions, and effective treatments for black spots on the tongue. It provides insights into when these spots require professional medical advice and outlines daily practices for prevention. Emphasizing the importance of oral hygiene, the article offers practical tips and home remedies to maintain a healthy mouth and potentially reduce or eliminate these spots.

black spots on tongue

Natural Causes of Black Spots on the Tongue

Discovering black spots on your tongue can be startling. Often, these spots are harmless and part of the tongue's unique landscape. Understanding the natural causes behind these spots can provide peace of mind and guide you towards appropriate care if necessary.

Food and Beverage Stains

The tongue, a muscular organ dotted with taste buds, is highly susceptible to staining from our diet. Foods with strong colorants, such as berries, and beverages like coffee and red wine, can temporarily tint the taste buds, leading to the appearance of black spots. These discolorations are generally fleeting and can be washed away with saliva over time or removed through thorough brushing.


Hyperpigmentation occurs when excess pigment deposits in the tongue, creating dark patches or spots. This natural variation in tongue coloration is benign and can result from genetics or certain lifestyle choices. While the spots may seem concerning, they are usually harmless and do not require medical intervention.

Exposure to Chemicals

According to the Mayo Clinic, the color change on the tongue can be a result of exposure to bismuth, a component found in certain upset stomach medications. This reaction can lead to temporary darkening of the tongue's surface in patches or spots. Typically, the discoloration resolves once the use of the medication is discontinued.


Maintaining excellent oral hygiene is the first step in addressing black spots on the tongue. This includes regular brushing, flossing, and, importantly, cleaning the tongue to remove any temporary stains. Additionally, staying hydrated helps wash away food particles and bacteria, potentially reducing the chance of discoloration.

Common Conditions Leading to Black Spots

Various health conditions can lead to the appearance of black spots on the tongue. Recognizing these can help in seeking timely advice and treatment if necessary.

Black Hairy Tongue

This condition, characterized by a dark, "furry" appearance of the tongue, results from an overgrowth of bacteria or yeast. The elongation of papillae traps food particles and microbes, leading to the black color. Poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, and certain medications can contribute to this condition, which is typically harmless and reversible with improved oral care.

Oral Hyperpigmentation

Some individuals may experience an increase in melanin production in the oral cavity, leading to dark spots or patches on the tongue. This can be due to genetic factors, medication side effects, or other underlying health conditions. While oral hyperpigmentation is usually benign, consulting a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis is advisable.

Oral Lichen Planus

This chronic condition manifests as white, lacy patches on the tongue, which can sometimes appear alongside dark spots. The exact cause of oral lichen planus is unknown, but it's thought to be related to an immune response. While there's no cure, symptoms can often be managed with proper oral hygiene and medical treatment.


Understanding the reasons behind black spots on the tongue, from natural causes to common health conditions, is crucial for maintaining oral health and peace of mind. For persistent spots or any concerns, visiting a healthcare professional for a comprehensive evaluation is recommended. Additionally, using an online tool like a Symptom Checker can provide preliminary insights but should never replace professional medical advice. 

Diagnosis and When to See a Doctor

When it comes to the health of your tongue, understanding when a change warrants a visit to the doctor is crucial. Black spots on the tongue, while often harmless, can sometimes signal a need for professional evaluation. If you notice that the spots persist for more than two weeks, change in size, texture, or color, or are accompanied by other symptoms like pain, discomfort, or swelling, it's time to seek medical advice. A healthcare professional can provide a comprehensive examination, including a visual assessment and possibly a biopsy, to determine the underlying cause of the black spots. Early diagnosis is key to addressing any potential health issues effectively.

For an initial check, consider using online health assistive tools. While not a substitute for professional medical advice, Docus AI Symptom Checker offers a preliminary way to understand your symptoms better.

Effective Treatments and Home Remedies

Upon diagnosing the cause of black spots on your tongue, your healthcare provider might suggest specific treatments or home remedies. Here are some effective approaches:

  • Oral Hygiene Improvement: Brushing twice daily with fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and using an antiseptic mouthwash can help eliminate bacteria and remove any substances causing discoloration.
  • Tongue Scraping: Regular use of a tongue scraper can remove bacteria, food debris, and dead cells from the surface of the tongue, potentially reducing or eliminating black spots.
  • Dietary Adjustments: Limiting foods and drinks that stain the tongue, such as coffee, tea, and certain berries, might prevent further discoloration.
  • Quitting Smoking and Tobacco Use: Tobacco is a common culprit behind oral health issues, including black hairy tongue and other conditions leading to discoloration.


Remember, while home remedies can be effective for treating some causes of black spots, they should not replace advice from a dental or medical professional.

Preventive Measures and Oral Hygiene Best Practices

Preventing black spots on the tongue starts with maintaining excellent oral hygiene and making healthy lifestyle choices. Here are some best practices:

  • Regular Dental Checkups: Visiting your dentist every six months for a professional cleaning and checkup can help catch and address oral health issues early.
  • Proper Brushing and Flossing Technique: Brush your teeth at least twice a day using fluoride toothpaste, and floss daily to remove plaque and food particles that can lead to discoloration.
  • Healthy Diet: A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and water not only supports overall health but also aids in oral health. Limiting sugary snacks and acidic foods can help prevent tooth decay and discoloration.
  • Avoid Harmful Substances: Reducing or eliminating the intake of tobacco products and alcohol can significantly decrease the risk of developing oral health issues that lead to black spots on the tongue.


By integrating these preventive measures and oral hygiene best practices into your daily routine, you can help ensure the health and appearance of your tongue and overall oral health. Remember, if you have concerns about black spots on your tongue or other oral health issues, consulting a healthcare professional is always the best course of action.


Discovering black spots on your tongue can be an unsettling experience, but understanding the potential causes and treatments can provide reassurance. Here are the key takeaways from our discussion:

  • Most black spots on the tongue are harmless and result from natural causes, dietary habits, or benign conditions.
  • Maintaining excellent oral hygiene, including regular brushing, flossing, and tongue cleaning, is crucial for preventing and removing black spots.
  • Lifestyle adjustments, such as quitting tobacco use and limiting consumption of stain-causing foods and beverages, play a significant role in maintaining oral health.
  • While natural remedies and home care practices can be effective for some conditions, persistent or concerning spots should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out any serious underlying issues.
  • Regular dental checkups and cleanings are essential for early detection and management of oral health conditions.


If you want to read more about tongue issues, we have an article about Orange Tongue.

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